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Experiments in Cyclebase

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Arabidopsis thaliana

Menges-aph

Genome-wide gene expression in an Arabidopsis cell suspension.
Menges M, Hennig L, Gruissem W, Murray JAH
Plant cell suspension cultures are invaluable models for the study of cellular processes. Here we develop the recently described Arabidopsis suspension culture MM2d as a transcript profiling platformby means of Affymetrix ATH1 microarrays. Analysis of gene expression profiles during normal culture growth, during synchronous cell cycle re-entry and during synchronous cell cycle progression provides a unique integrated view of gene expression responses in a higher-plant system. Particularly striking is that expression of over 14 000 genes belonging to all defined categories can be reliably detected, suggesting that integrated and comparative analysis of data sets derived from transcript profiling of cultures is a powerful approach to identify candidate components involved in a wide range of biological processes. Combinatorial analysis of independent cell cycle synchrony methods allows the identification of genes that are apparently cell-cycle-regulated but are most likely responding to the induction of synchrony. We thus present an integrated genome-wide view of the transcriptional profile of a plant suspension culture and identify a refined set of 1082 cell cycle regulated genes largely independent of synchrony method.
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(0.6 MB)

Menges-suc

Genome-wide gene expression in an Arabidopsis cell suspension.
Menges M, Hennig L, Gruissem W, Murray JAH
Plant cell suspension cultures are invaluable models for the study of cellular processes. Here we develop the recently described Arabidopsis suspension culture MM2d as a transcript profiling platformby means of Affymetrix ATH1 microarrays. Analysis of gene expression profiles during normal culture growth, during synchronous cell cycle re-entry and during synchronous cell cycle progression provides a unique integrated view of gene expression responses in a higher-plant system. Particularly striking is that expression of over 14 000 genes belonging to all defined categories can be reliably detected, suggesting that integrated and comparative analysis of data sets derived from transcript profiling of cultures is a powerful approach to identify candidate components involved in a wide range of biological processes. Combinatorial analysis of independent cell cycle synchrony methods allows the identification of genes that are apparently cell-cycle-regulated but are most likely responding to the induction of synchrony. We thus present an integrated genome-wide view of the transcriptional profile of a plant suspension culture and identify a refined set of 1082 cell cycle regulated genes largely independent of synchrony method.
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(0.6 MB)

Homo sapiens

Whitfield-ThyNoc

Identification of Genes Periodically Expressed in the Human Cell Cycle and Their Expression in Tumors
Whitfield ML, Sherlock G, Saldanha AJ, Murray JI, Ball CA, Alexander KE, Matese JC, Perou CM, Hurt MM, Brown PO, Botstein D.
The genome-wide program of gene expression during the cell division cycle in a human cancer cell line (HeLa) was characterized using cDNA microarrays. Transcripts of >850 genes showed periodic variation during the cell cycle. Hierarchical clustering of the expression patterns revealed coexpressed groups of previously well-characterized genes involved in essential cell cycle processes such as DNA replication, chromosome segregation, and cell adhesion along with genes of uncharacterized function. Most of the genes whose expression had previously been reported to correlate with the proliferative state of tumors were found herein also to be periodically expressed during the HeLa cell cycle. However, some of the genes periodically expressed in the HeLa cell cycle do not have a consistent correlation with tumor proliferation. Cell cycle-regulated transcripts of genes involved in fundamental processes such as DNA replication and chromosome segregation seem to be more highly expressed in proliferative tumors simply because they contain more cycling cells. The data in this report provide a comprehensive catalog of cell cycle regulated genes that can serve as a starting point for functional discovery. The full dataset is available at http://genome-www.stanford.edu/Human-CellCycle/HeLa/.
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(8.1 MB)

Whitfield-Thythy1

Identification of Genes Periodically Expressed in the Human Cell Cycle and Their Expression in Tumors
Whitfield ML, Sherlock G, Saldanha AJ, Murray JI, Ball CA, Alexander KE, Matese JC, Perou CM, Hurt MM, Brown PO, Botstein D.
The genome-wide program of gene expression during the cell division cycle in a human cancer cell line (HeLa) was characterized using cDNA microarrays. Transcripts of >850 genes showed periodic variation during the cell cycle. Hierarchical clustering of the expression patterns revealed coexpressed groups of previously well-characterized genes involved in essential cell cycle processes such as DNA replication, chromosome segregation, and cell adhesion along with genes of uncharacterized function. Most of the genes whose expression had previously been reported to correlate with the proliferative state of tumors were found herein also to be periodically expressed during the HeLa cell cycle. However, some of the genes periodically expressed in the HeLa cell cycle do not have a consistent correlation with tumor proliferation. Cell cycle-regulated transcripts of genes involved in fundamental processes such as DNA replication and chromosome segregation seem to be more highly expressed in proliferative tumors simply because they contain more cycling cells. The data in this report provide a comprehensive catalog of cell cycle regulated genes that can serve as a starting point for functional discovery. The full dataset is available at http://genome-www.stanford.edu/Human-CellCycle/HeLa/.
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(2.2 MB)

Whitfield-Thythy2

Identification of Genes Periodically Expressed in the Human Cell Cycle and Their Expression in Tumors
Whitfield ML, Sherlock G, Saldanha AJ, Murray JI, Ball CA, Alexander KE, Matese JC, Perou CM, Hurt MM, Brown PO, Botstein D.
The genome-wide program of gene expression during the cell division cycle in a human cancer cell line (HeLa) was characterized using cDNA microarrays. Transcripts of >850 genes showed periodic variation during the cell cycle. Hierarchical clustering of the expression patterns revealed coexpressed groups of previously well-characterized genes involved in essential cell cycle processes such as DNA replication, chromosome segregation, and cell adhesion along with genes of uncharacterized function. Most of the genes whose expression had previously been reported to correlate with the proliferative state of tumors were found herein also to be periodically expressed during the HeLa cell cycle. However, some of the genes periodically expressed in the HeLa cell cycle do not have a consistent correlation with tumor proliferation. Cell cycle-regulated transcripts of genes involved in fundamental processes such as DNA replication and chromosome segregation seem to be more highly expressed in proliferative tumors simply because they contain more cycling cells. The data in this report provide a comprehensive catalog of cell cycle regulated genes that can serve as a starting point for functional discovery. The full dataset is available at http://genome-www.stanford.edu/Human-CellCycle/HeLa/.
Download Treated Data: Zip File
(4.2 MB)

Whitfield-Thythy3

Identification of Genes Periodically Expressed in the Human Cell Cycle and Their Expression in Tumors
Whitfield ML, Sherlock G, Saldanha AJ, Murray JI, Ball CA, Alexander KE, Matese JC, Perou CM, Hurt MM, Brown PO, Botstein D.
The genome-wide program of gene expression during the cell division cycle in a human cancer cell line (HeLa) was characterized using cDNA microarrays. Transcripts of >850 genes showed periodic variation during the cell cycle. Hierarchical clustering of the expression patterns revealed coexpressed groups of previously well-characterized genes involved in essential cell cycle processes such as DNA replication, chromosome segregation, and cell adhesion along with genes of uncharacterized function. Most of the genes whose expression had previously been reported to correlate with the proliferative state of tumors were found herein also to be periodically expressed during the HeLa cell cycle. However, some of the genes periodically expressed in the HeLa cell cycle do not have a consistent correlation with tumor proliferation. Cell cycle-regulated transcripts of genes involved in fundamental processes such as DNA replication and chromosome segregation seem to be more highly expressed in proliferative tumors simply because they contain more cycling cells. The data in this report provide a comprehensive catalog of cell cycle regulated genes that can serve as a starting point for functional discovery. The full dataset is available at http://genome-www.stanford.edu/Human-CellCycle/HeLa/.
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(17.0 MB)

Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Cho-cdc28

A genome-wide transcriptional analysis of the mitotic cell cycle.
Cho, RJ, Campbell, MJ, Winzeler EA, Steinmetz L, Conway A, Wodicka L, Wolfsberg TG, Gabrielian AE, Landsman D, Lockhart DJ, Davis RW.
Progression through the eukaryotic cell cycle is known to be both regulated and accompanied by periodic fluctuation in the expression levels of numerous genes. We report here the genome-wide characterization of mRNA transcript levels during the cell cycle of the budding yeast S. cerevisiae. Cell cycle???dependent periodicity was found for 416 of the 6220 monitored transcripts. More than 25% of the 416 genes were found directly adjacent to other genes in the genome that displayed induction in the same cell cycle phase, suggesting a mechanism for local chromosomal organization in global mRNA regulation. More than 60% of the characterized genes that displayed mRNA fluctuation have already been implicated in cell cycle period-specific biological roles. Because more than 20% of human proteins display significant homology to yeast proteins, these results also link a range of human genes to cell cycle period-specific biological functions.
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(1.0 MB)

de Lichtenberg-cdc15

New weakly expressed cell cycle-regulated genes in yeast.
de Lichtenberg U, Wernersson R, Jensen TS, Nielsen HB, Fausbøll A, Schmidt P, Hansen FB, Knudsen S, Brunak S.
We present an approach combining bioinformatics prediction with experimental microarray validation to identify new cell cycle-regulated genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We identify in the order of 100 new cell cycle-regulated genes and show by independent data that these genes in general tend to be more weakly expressed than the genes identified hitherto. Among the genes not previously suggested to be periodically expressed we find genes linked to DNA repair, cell size monitoring and transcriptional control, as well as a number of genes of unknown function. Several of the gene products are believed to be phosphorylated by Cdc28. For many of these new genes, homologues exist in Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Homo sapiens for which the expression also varies with cell cycle progression. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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(0.3 MB)

Pramilla-alpha30

The Forkhead transcription factor Hcm1 regulates chromosome segregation genes and fills the S-phase gap in the transcriptional circuitry of the cell cycle.
Pramila T, Wu W, Miles S, Noble WS, Breeden LL.
Transcription patterns shift dramatically as cells transit from one phase of the cell cycle to another. To better define this transcriptional circuitry, we collected new microarray data across the cell cycle of budding yeast. The combined analysis of these data with three other cell cycle data sets identifies hundreds of new highly periodic transcripts and provides a weighted average peak time for each transcript. Using these data and phylogenetic comparisons of promoter sequences, we have identified a late S-phase-specific promoter element. This element is the binding site for the forkhead protein Hcm1, which is required for its cell cycle-specific activity. Among the cell cycle-regulated genes that contain conserved Hcm1-binding sites, there is a significant enrichment of genes involved in chromosome segregation, spindle dynamics, and budding. This may explain why Hcm1 mutants show 10-fold elevated rates of chromosome loss and require the spindle checkpoint for viability. Hcm1 also induces the M-phase-specific transcription factors FKH1, FKH2, and NDD1, and two cell cycle-specific transcriptional repressors, WHI5 and YHP1. As such, Hcm1 fills a significant gap in our understanding of the transcriptional circuitry that underlies the cell cycle.
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(1.3 MB)

Pramilla-alpha38

The Forkhead transcription factor Hcm1 regulates chromosome segregation genes and fills the S-phase gap in the transcriptional circuitry of the cell cycle.
Pramila T, Wu W, Miles S, Noble WS, Breeden LL.
Transcription patterns shift dramatically as cells transit from one phase of the cell cycle to another. To better define this transcriptional circuitry, we collected new microarray data across the cell cycle of budding yeast. The combined analysis of these data with three other cell cycle data sets identifies hundreds of new highly periodic transcripts and provides a weighted average peak time for each transcript. Using these data and phylogenetic comparisons of promoter sequences, we have identified a late S-phase-specific promoter element. This element is the binding site for the forkhead protein Hcm1, which is required for its cell cycle-specific activity. Among the cell cycle-regulated genes that contain conserved Hcm1-binding sites, there is a significant enrichment of genes involved in chromosome segregation, spindle dynamics, and budding. This may explain why Hcm1 mutants show 10-fold elevated rates of chromosome loss and require the spindle checkpoint for viability. Hcm1 also induces the M-phase-specific transcription factors FKH1, FKH2, and NDD1, and two cell cycle-specific transcriptional repressors, WHI5 and YHP1. As such, Hcm1 fills a significant gap in our understanding of the transcriptional circuitry that underlies the cell cycle.
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(1.3 MB)

Spellman-alpha

Comprehensive identification of cell cycle-regulated genes of the yeast S. cerevisiae by microarray hybridization.
Spellman PT, Sherlock G, Zhang MQ, Iyer VR, Anders K, Eisen MB, Brown PO, Botstein D, Futcher B.
We sought to create a comprehensive catalog of yeast genes whose transcript levels vary periodically within the cell cycle. To this end, we used DNA microarrays and samples from yeast cultures synchronized by three independent methods: alpha factor arrest, elutriation, and arrest of a cdc15 temperature-sensitive mutant. Using periodicity and correlation algorithms, we identified 800 genes that meet an objective minimum criterion for cell cycle regulation. In separate experiments, designed to examine the effects of inducing either the G1 cyclin Cln3p or the B-type cyclin Clb2p, we found that the mRNA levels of more than half of these 800 genes respond to one or both of these cyclins. Furthermore, we analyzed our set of cell cycle-regulated genes for known and new promoter elements and show that several known elements (or variations thereof) contain information predictive of cell cycle regulation. A full description and complete data sets are available at http://cellcycle-www.stanford.edu
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(0.4 MB)

Spellman-cdc15

Comprehensive identification of cell cycle-regulated genes of the yeast S. cerevisiae by microarray hybridization.
Spellman PT, Sherlock G, Zhang MQ, Iyer VR, Anders K, Eisen MB, Brown PO, Botstein D, Futcher B.
We sought to create a comprehensive catalog of yeast genes whose transcript levels vary periodically within the cell cycle. To this end, we used DNA microarrays and samples from yeast cultures synchronized by three independent methods: alpha factor arrest, elutriation, and arrest of a cdc15 temperature-sensitive mutant. Using periodicity and correlation algorithms, we identified 800 genes that meet an objective minimum criterion for cell cycle regulation. In separate experiments, designed to examine the effects of inducing either the G1 cyclin Cln3p or the B-type cyclin Clb2p, we found that the mRNA levels of more than half of these 800 genes respond to one or both of these cyclins. Furthermore, we analyzed our set of cell cycle-regulated genes for known and new promoter elements and show that several known elements (or variations thereof) contain information predictive of cell cycle regulation. A full description and complete data sets are available at http://cellcycle-www.stanford.edu
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(0.5 MB)

Schizosaccharomyces pombe

Oliva-cdc25

The cell cycle-regulated genes of Schizosaccharomyces pombe.
Oliva A, Rosebrock A, Ferrezuelo F, Pyne S, Chen H, Skiena S, Futcher B, Leatherwood J.
Many genes are regulated as an innate part of the eukaryotic cell cycle, and a complex transcriptional network helps enable the cyclic behavior of dividing cells. This transcriptional network has been studied in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (budding yeast) and elsewhere. To provide more perspective on these regulatory mechanisms, we have used microarrays to measure gene expression through the cell cycle of Schizosaccharomyces pombe (fission yeast). The 750 genes with the most significant oscillations were identified and analyzed. There were two broad waves of cell cycle transcription, one in early/mid G2 phase, and the other near the G2/M transition. The early/mid G2 wave included many genes involved in ribosome biogenesis, possibly explaining the cell cycle oscillation in protein synthesis in S. pombe. The G2/M wave included at least three distinctly regulated clusters of genes: one large cluster including mitosis, mitotic exit, and cell separation functions, one small cluster dedicated to DNA replication, and another small cluster dedicated to cytokinesis and division. S. pombe cell cycle genes have relatively long, complex promoters containing groups of multiple DNA sequence motifs, often of two, three, or more different kinds. Many of the genes, transcription factors, and regulatory mechanisms are conserved between S. pombe and S. cerevisiae. Finally, we found preliminary evidence for a nearly genome-wide oscillation in gene expression: 2,000 or more genes undergo slight oscillations in expression as a function of the cell cycle, although whether this is adaptive, or incidental to other events in the cell, such as chromatin condensation, we do not know.
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(0.2 MB)

Oliva-eluA

The cell cycle-regulated genes of Schizosaccharomyces pombe.
Oliva A, Rosebrock A, Ferrezuelo F, Pyne S, Chen H, Skiena S, Futcher B, Leatherwood J.
Many genes are regulated as an innate part of the eukaryotic cell cycle, and a complex transcriptional network helps enable the cyclic behavior of dividing cells. This transcriptional network has been studied in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (budding yeast) and elsewhere. To provide more perspective on these regulatory mechanisms, we have used microarrays to measure gene expression through the cell cycle of Schizosaccharomyces pombe (fission yeast). The 750 genes with the most significant oscillations were identified and analyzed. There were two broad waves of cell cycle transcription, one in early/mid G2 phase, and the other near the G2/M transition. The early/mid G2 wave included many genes involved in ribosome biogenesis, possibly explaining the cell cycle oscillation in protein synthesis in S. pombe. The G2/M wave included at least three distinctly regulated clusters of genes: one large cluster including mitosis, mitotic exit, and cell separation functions, one small cluster dedicated to DNA replication, and another small cluster dedicated to cytokinesis and division. S. pombe cell cycle genes have relatively long, complex promoters containing groups of multiple DNA sequence motifs, often of two, three, or more different kinds. Many of the genes, transcription factors, and regulatory mechanisms are conserved between S. pombe and S. cerevisiae. Finally, we found preliminary evidence for a nearly genome-wide oscillation in gene expression: 2,000 or more genes undergo slight oscillations in expression as a function of the cell cycle, although whether this is adaptive, or incidental to other events in the cell, such as chromatin condensation, we do not know.
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(0.2 MB)

Oliva-eluB

The cell cycle-regulated genes of Schizosaccharomyces pombe.
Oliva A, Rosebrock A, Ferrezuelo F, Pyne S, Chen H, Skiena S, Futcher B, Leatherwood J.
Many genes are regulated as an innate part of the eukaryotic cell cycle, and a complex transcriptional network helps enable the cyclic behavior of dividing cells. This transcriptional network has been studied in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (budding yeast) and elsewhere. To provide more perspective on these regulatory mechanisms, we have used microarrays to measure gene expression through the cell cycle of Schizosaccharomyces pombe (fission yeast). The 750 genes with the most significant oscillations were identified and analyzed. There were two broad waves of cell cycle transcription, one in early/mid G2 phase, and the other near the G2/M transition. The early/mid G2 wave included many genes involved in ribosome biogenesis, possibly explaining the cell cycle oscillation in protein synthesis in S. pombe. The G2/M wave included at least three distinctly regulated clusters of genes: one large cluster including mitosis, mitotic exit, and cell separation functions, one small cluster dedicated to DNA replication, and another small cluster dedicated to cytokinesis and division. S. pombe cell cycle genes have relatively long, complex promoters containing groups of multiple DNA sequence motifs, often of two, three, or more different kinds. Many of the genes, transcription factors, and regulatory mechanisms are conserved between S. pombe and S. cerevisiae. Finally, we found preliminary evidence for a nearly genome-wide oscillation in gene expression: 2,000 or more genes undergo slight oscillations in expression as a function of the cell cycle, although whether this is adaptive, or incidental to other events in the cell, such as chromatin condensation, we do not know.
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(0.2 MB)

Peng-cdc25

Identification of cell cycle-regulated genes in fission yeast.
Peng X, Karuturi RK, Miller LD, Lin K, Jia Y, Kondu P, Wang L, Wong LS, Liu ET, Balasubramanian MK, Liu J.
Cell cycle progression is both regulated and accompanied by periodic changes in the expression levels of a large number of genes. To investigate cell cycle-regulated transcriptional programs in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, we developed a whole-genome oligonucleotide-based DNA microarray. Microarray analysis of both wild-type and cdc25 mutant cell cultures was performed to identify transcripts whose levels oscillated during the cell cycle. Using an unsupervised algorithm, we identified 747 genes that met the criteria for cell cycle-regulated expression. Peaks of gene expression were found to be distributed throughout the entire cell cycle. Furthermore, we found that four promoter motifs exhibited strong association with cell cycle phase-specific expression. Examination of the regulation of MCB motif-containing genes through the perturbation of DNA synthesis control/MCB-binding factor (DSC/MBF)-mediated transcription in arrested synchronous cdc10 mutant cell cultures revealed a subset of functional targets of the DSC/MBF transcription factor complex, as well as certain gene promoter requirements. Finally, we compared our data with those for the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and found approximately 140 genes that are cell cycle regulated in both yeasts, suggesting that these genes may play an evolutionarily conserved role in regulation of cell cycle-specific processes. Our complete data sets are available at http://giscompute.gis.a-star.edu.sg/~gisljh/CDC.
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(0.2 MB)

Peng-elu

Identification of cell cycle-regulated genes in fission yeast.
Peng X, Karuturi RK, Miller LD, Lin K, Jia Y, Kondu P, Wang L, Wong LS, Liu ET, Balasubramanian MK, Liu J.
Cell cycle progression is both regulated and accompanied by periodic changes in the expression levels of a large number of genes. To investigate cell cycle-regulated transcriptional programs in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, we developed a whole-genome oligonucleotide-based DNA microarray. Microarray analysis of both wild-type and cdc25 mutant cell cultures was performed to identify transcripts whose levels oscillated during the cell cycle. Using an unsupervised algorithm, we identified 747 genes that met the criteria for cell cycle-regulated expression. Peaks of gene expression were found to be distributed throughout the entire cell cycle. Furthermore, we found that four promoter motifs exhibited strong association with cell cycle phase-specific expression. Examination of the regulation of MCB motif-containing genes through the perturbation of DNA synthesis control/MCB-binding factor (DSC/MBF)-mediated transcription in arrested synchronous cdc10 mutant cell cultures revealed a subset of functional targets of the DSC/MBF transcription factor complex, as well as certain gene promoter requirements. Finally, we compared our data with those for the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and found approximately 140 genes that are cell cycle regulated in both yeasts, suggesting that these genes may play an evolutionarily conserved role in regulation of cell cycle-specific processes. Our complete data sets are available at http://giscompute.gis.a-star.edu.sg/~gisljh/CDC.
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(0.2 MB)

Rustici-cdc25-1

Periodic gene expression program of the fission yeast cell cycle.
Rustici G, Mata J, Kivinen K, Lio P, Penkett CJ, Burns G, Hayles J, Brazma A, Nurse P, Bahler J.
Cell-cycle control of transcription seems to be universal, but little is known about its global conservation and biological significance. We report on the genome-wide transcriptional program of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe cell cycle, identifying 407 periodically expressed genes of which 136 show high-amplitude changes. These genes cluster in four major waves of expression. The forkhead protein Sep1p regulates mitotic genes in the first cluster, including Ace2p, which activates transcription in the second cluster during the M-G1 transition and cytokinesis. Other genes in the second cluster, which are required for G1-S progression, are regulated by the MBF complex independently of Sep1p and Ace2p. The third cluster coincides with S phase and a fourth cluster contains genes weakly regulated during G2 phase. Despite conserved cell-cycle transcription factors, differences in regulatory circuits between fission and budding yeasts are evident, revealing evolutionary plasticity of transcriptional control. Periodic transcription of most genes is not conserved between the two yeasts, except for a core set of approximately 40 genes that seem to be universally regulated during the eukaryotic cell cycle and may have key roles in cell-cycle progression.
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(0.9 MB)

Rustici-cdc25-2

Periodic gene expression program of the fission yeast cell cycle.
Rustici G, Mata J, Kivinen K, Lio P, Penkett CJ, Burns G, Hayles J, Brazma A, Nurse P, Bahler J.
Cell-cycle control of transcription seems to be universal, but little is known about its global conservation and biological significance. We report on the genome-wide transcriptional program of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe cell cycle, identifying 407 periodically expressed genes of which 136 show high-amplitude changes. These genes cluster in four major waves of expression. The forkhead protein Sep1p regulates mitotic genes in the first cluster, including Ace2p, which activates transcription in the second cluster during the M-G1 transition and cytokinesis. Other genes in the second cluster, which are required for G1-S progression, are regulated by the MBF complex independently of Sep1p and Ace2p. The third cluster coincides with S phase and a fourth cluster contains genes weakly regulated during G2 phase. Despite conserved cell-cycle transcription factors, differences in regulatory circuits between fission and budding yeasts are evident, revealing evolutionary plasticity of transcriptional control. Periodic transcription of most genes is not conserved between the two yeasts, except for a core set of approximately 40 genes that seem to be universally regulated during the eukaryotic cell cycle and may have key roles in cell-cycle progression.
Download Treated Data: Zip File
(0.9 MB)

Rustici-elu1-1

Periodic gene expression program of the fission yeast cell cycle.
Rustici G, Mata J, Kivinen K, Lio P, Penkett CJ, Burns G, Hayles J, Brazma A, Nurse P, Bahler J.
Cell-cycle control of transcription seems to be universal, but little is known about its global conservation and biological significance. We report on the genome-wide transcriptional program of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe cell cycle, identifying 407 periodically expressed genes of which 136 show high-amplitude changes. These genes cluster in four major waves of expression. The forkhead protein Sep1p regulates mitotic genes in the first cluster, including Ace2p, which activates transcription in the second cluster during the M-G1 transition and cytokinesis. Other genes in the second cluster, which are required for G1-S progression, are regulated by the MBF complex independently of Sep1p and Ace2p. The third cluster coincides with S phase and a fourth cluster contains genes weakly regulated during G2 phase. Despite conserved cell-cycle transcription factors, differences in regulatory circuits between fission and budding yeasts are evident, revealing evolutionary plasticity of transcriptional control. Periodic transcription of most genes is not conserved between the two yeasts, except for a core set of approximately 40 genes that seem to be universally regulated during the eukaryotic cell cycle and may have key roles in cell-cycle progression.
Download Treated Data: Zip File
(0.9 MB)

Rustici-elu1-2

Periodic gene expression program of the fission yeast cell cycle.
Rustici G, Mata J, Kivinen K, Lio P, Penkett CJ, Burns G, Hayles J, Brazma A, Nurse P, Bahler J.
Cell-cycle control of transcription seems to be universal, but little is known about its global conservation and biological significance. We report on the genome-wide transcriptional program of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe cell cycle, identifying 407 periodically expressed genes of which 136 show high-amplitude changes. These genes cluster in four major waves of expression. The forkhead protein Sep1p regulates mitotic genes in the first cluster, including Ace2p, which activates transcription in the second cluster during the M-G1 transition and cytokinesis. Other genes in the second cluster, which are required for G1-S progression, are regulated by the MBF complex independently of Sep1p and Ace2p. The third cluster coincides with S phase and a fourth cluster contains genes weakly regulated during G2 phase. Despite conserved cell-cycle transcription factors, differences in regulatory circuits between fission and budding yeasts are evident, revealing evolutionary plasticity of transcriptional control. Periodic transcription of most genes is not conserved between the two yeasts, except for a core set of approximately 40 genes that seem to be universally regulated during the eukaryotic cell cycle and may have key roles in cell-cycle progression.
Download Treated Data: Zip File
(0.9 MB)

Rustici-elu1-3

Periodic gene expression program of the fission yeast cell cycle.
Rustici G, Mata J, Kivinen K, Lio P, Penkett CJ, Burns G, Hayles J, Brazma A, Nurse P, Bahler J.
Cell-cycle control of transcription seems to be universal, but little is known about its global conservation and biological significance. We report on the genome-wide transcriptional program of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe cell cycle, identifying 407 periodically expressed genes of which 136 show high-amplitude changes. These genes cluster in four major waves of expression. The forkhead protein Sep1p regulates mitotic genes in the first cluster, including Ace2p, which activates transcription in the second cluster during the M-G1 transition and cytokinesis. Other genes in the second cluster, which are required for G1-S progression, are regulated by the MBF complex independently of Sep1p and Ace2p. The third cluster coincides with S phase and a fourth cluster contains genes weakly regulated during G2 phase. Despite conserved cell-cycle transcription factors, differences in regulatory circuits between fission and budding yeasts are evident, revealing evolutionary plasticity of transcriptional control. Periodic transcription of most genes is not conserved between the two yeasts, except for a core set of approximately 40 genes that seem to be universally regulated during the eukaryotic cell cycle and may have key roles in cell-cycle progression.
Download Treated Data: Zip File
(0.9 MB)